A Moment of Your Time  

by Susan Graham 

We’re not asking for a month or a day-but just a moment during this week. June 7 to 14 is National Multiracial Heritage Week. I know, I know, you’re getting tired of all these groups with all their months, weeks, and days. Does every group need a special time-slot? Probably not, but if they do, we want one too.

This special week now has the official sanction of the Governors and legislators of Alabama, California, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Massachusetts, Missouri, Texas, New Jersey, North Carolina, Tennessee, Washington, and the Mayor of the District of Columbia. The multiracial population is the fastest growing racial group in the country. We’ll only get bigger.

Project RACE (Reclassify All Children Equally) is in its 25th year of “introducing” the multiracial community to the rest of the world.

The word “multiracial” has had a stormy ride. In the 1990s, when we were trying to convince the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) that people needed to be able to check more than one box, they advised us to give them a definitive word to use. We had the choice of multiracial, biracial, mixed-race, and others. We asked the community and the consensus was the term “multiracial.” It is more inclusive than biracial. It doesn’t grate as much as “mixed,” which lends itself too easily to “mixed nuts” or “mixed up,” not to mention the problem that “mixed” is the opposite of “pure,” and that’s not a place we want to go.

Yes, the nomenclature is a problem. I wish we could be as successful in changing terminology as the gay community. Remember when people used the term “homosexual”? Not anymore. I wish we could be as savvy as the community once known as colored, then Negro, then Black, and now African-American. But for reasons beyond our control, we remain more mixed than multiracial, more “other” than biracial, and more forgotten than other populations. But are we invisible? Didn’t you see that light tan baby being pushed down the street in the stroller yesterday? The dark woman pushing it was not the nanny-she was the mother. What about the family with the children who look part Asian? Yes, they take after their Asian mother and their white father.

When we were trying to reason with OMB, we also ran into the U.S. Census Bureau. But they still call us “MOOMs”-people who Mark One or More races, or the “combination” population. It’s hard to get bureaucrats to change once two or more of them make up their minds.

Then there is the United States Department of Education. They might allow schools to let students check more than one race, but then they redistribute us to other racial categories with some strange algorithms. If a student checks Hispanic as one of their ethnic parts, then they become 100 percent Hispanic.

Then we have the United States Department of Justice, and all of their concerns about discrimination. They depend on the data to ensure that minorities are not discriminated against in any way. How could a multiracial person prove discrimination based on the fact that they are multiracial if no such multiracial numbers exist? It’s a real quandary.

Choosing to be multiracial is just that: a choice. If you want to be monoracial based on your personal history or just because that’s how you feel today, that’s great. However, if you wish to celebrate your entire heritage, the choice should be yours and yours alone.

So, if you can, think about how you can contribute to Multiracial Heritage Week from June 7th to 14th. Give us a moment. Perhaps you can simply acknowledge a grandchild, teach about famous multiracial people, think about what you are going to call that multiracial person you know, or contribute to our cause. Join us. Google us. Befriend us. Follow us. Help us get the message out that this is the start of something big-something multiracial.

Susan Graham is the president of Project RACE, Inc.

 

Another Win for PR Teen Prez

mm by mattProject RACE has an incredible team of talented and dedicated youth leaders. Makensie McDaniel,  of Belmont, NC, is one of our Project RACE Teens Co-Presidents. On January 2, 2016 she participated in a local preliminary and won the title of Miss Queen City’s Outstanding Teen. Makensie will now be competing at Miss North Carolina’s Outstanding Teen Pageant in June. She will compete in personal interview, fitness, talent, and evening gown/onstage question. Competitors must be between the ages of 13-17 and show personal commitment, perseverance, talent, and ambition. They must also have a personal platform, and we are delighted that Makensie’s personal platform is the multiracial advocacy of Project RACE.

“As a child, I struggled a bit with racial identity,” Makensie said. “I am multiracial, as my mother is white and my father is black. I was raised primarily by the white side of my family, have attended majority white schools, and my community has been mainly white. Therefore, I self identified as white in middle school, but was constantly told by society that I was black. This struggle inspired my passion for multiracial advocacy, and my platform Project RACE.”

About competing in pageants, Makensie said, “The Miss North Carolina’s Outstanding Teen program has pushed me out of my comfort zone and helped me become the leader that I am today. I would encourage any young lady between the ages of 13-17 to become a part of the Miss America’s Outstanding Teen Program through your state.”

One way Makensie has promoted her platform on the state level is with our annual Multiracial Heritage Week. She worked with Governor Pat McCrory to proclaim June 7th-14th Multiracial Heritage week in North Carolina.  She hopes to make the celebration across her state even bigger this year.  This is the third annual Multiracial Heritage Week initiated by Project RACE. Nationally, Project RACE has had twelve states issue proclamations and is working hard contacting the governors of each state so that more proclamations can be issued and more multiracial people celebrated.

If you would like to help get Multiracial Heritage Week in YOUR state, we would love to have you on our team. Stay tuned to find out how you can help!

 

photo credit: Matt Boyd

The Brain Likes Categories. Where To Put Mixed-Race People?

diversity -bb95c81ae749eb9038588ccdaf6127a6841c2296-s800-c85via npr.org

Humans like to place things in categories and can struggle when things can’t easily be categorized. That also applies to people, a study finds, and the brain’s visual biases may play a role in perceptions of mixed-race people.

The study, published in Psychological Science on Monday, asked people to sort images of people as either white or black, but it included multiracial faces in the mix, too. There has been much less research into attitudes about mixed-race people, even though they are the fastest-growing racial group in the United States.

The 235 study participants, who all self-identified as white, signed up through the online survey site Mechanical Turk and provided their ZIP codes. The researchers then used U.S. Census data to determine their level of exposure to other racial groups.

People who lived in areas with more racial diversity categorized the faces with less hesitation, according to analysis of the participants’ use of a computer mouse during the experiment.

The researchers say that by using mouse tracking they were able to get a clearer sense of the participants’ reactions, unlike other studies of unconscious racial bias that have relied on surveys where participants could change or correct their answers. The mouse movements of those who lived in less racially diverse areas meandered more between the two choices before picking one.

“Where you live influences how easily you process biracial faces which may, without your awareness, be affecting your attitudes toward them,” according to Diana Sanchez, an associate professor of psychology at Rutgers and an author of the study.

The researchers then asked a second group of 148 people to rank images of white, black and mixed-race faces for trustworthiness. The participants all identified themselves as white. Those who had more exposure to mixed-race people in real life were less likely to categorize them as untrustworthy.

Some of the bias could be explained not just by lack of familiarity, but by the brain’s insistence on putting people into rigid categories, according to Jonathan Freeman, an assistant professor in New York University’s department of psychology who was lead author of the study. “Some portion of the bias in certain cases can be explained from the way we visually experience other individuals.”

In other words, in some measure it’s literally an issue of perception.

MIXED RACE STEREOTYPES AND MISCONCEPTIONS

labelvia MIXEDRACEFEMINISTBLOG

Stereotypes and misconceptions about mixed race people are very interesting to me, particularly because I feel they are rarely acknowledged in our society. I asked some mixed race women of white and black heritage what stereotypes and misconceptions they hate the most about mixed race people. I got the following answers:

That identifying as mixed is a sign someone wants to be white/ is anti-black
That mixed race people think they are better than black people
That mixed race people are conceited
That mixed race people are ‘exotic’
That mixed race people have better health than mono-racial people
That mixed race people can only be of fair complexion
That mixed race people have it easy
That because you are mixed race you will automatically be popular when it comes to dating
Here are some other stereotypes and misconceptions I have come across in my own experience as a mixed race woman with white and black heritage:

Mixed race people are confused/ unhappy/ mentally unstable
All mixed race people hate their black heritage
Mixed race people are all beautiful/ have beauty privilege
Mixed race people are always of black and white heritage
Mixed race people always have one white parent
Mixed race people are of two races only (some mixed race people are 3 or more different races)
Mixed race people are here to end racism and mediate between black and white people
Mixed race people represent a post-racial society
There is something innately special and superior about being mixed race
Mixed race people don’t experience racism
Mixed race people are smarter than mono-racial people
White people AND people of colour (including mixed race people themselves) often perpetuate these stereotypes. Perpetuating stereotypes about mixed race people is often seen as ok since mixed race people are frequently seen as an over-privileged group who do not experience oppression, and also some of the stereotypes about mixed race people are viewed as positive and therefore harmless. Perpetuating stereotypes against any oppressed group is not ok under any circumstances. Mixed race people experience racism, mono-racism (prejudice and discrimination towards people of more than one race based on their multiracial identity), and anti-multiculturalism.

As a mixed race woman with black heritage I also find that I am open to stereotypes about black people in addition to stereotypes about mixed race people. It’s been assumed that I am not intelligent, take drugs, that I am hypersexual and so on, simply because I have black heritage. It’s commonly ignored that mixed race people can be exposed to racial stereotypes for all aspects of their racial identity including their mixed race identity itself.

People in oppressed groups can internalize stereotypes about themselves and behave accordingly. It’s really important to be vigilant against stereotypes and to allow people their full individuality. Even the stereotypes that seem positive can be harmful to mixed race people. As an example the stereotype that all mixed race people are beautiful made me feel inadequate as a child because I knew I did not live up to that stereotype. When I was older and found it easier to meet the stereotype I had to deal with a lot of racial fetishization, which is another issue caused by this stereotype. Now even if someone says a positive stereotype to me about being mixed race, I experience it as racism because that’s ultimately what it is. Generalizations based on race are always problematic because they are never true in every case and no-one wants to be seen and judged by their race only.

Can you think of any other stereotypes and misconceptions that I’ve missed? How do you respond to mixed race stereotypes?

Breaking News from Teen Project RACE President

 

Last Wednesday I met with the Dean of Admissions at my high school and was very excited when he agreed to make a change on the Delbarton application forms in order to allow multiracial students to identify all parts of their heritage. I explained our mission at Project RACE and showed him a sample of the recommended wording for inquiring of a student’s race on an application. Our preferred wording, if you don’t know, is “If you are multiracial, you may select two or more boxes”. I am thankful that our dean saw the importance of making this change even though, in a private school, he was not legally obligated to do so. I am very proud of our mission, and look forward to working with the Teen Panelists on changing many more applications in the future!

 

Delbarton’s student body comprises students from more than eight New Jersey counties and 60 communities. Minority students represent about 12% of the student body.

 

 

Census Bureau Rethinks the Best Way to Measure Race


Census Bureau Rethinks The Best Way To Measure Race

A crowd crosses the street in midtown Manhattan.

(A crowd crosses the street in midtown Manhattan.

Spencer Platt/Getty Images)

Possible revisions to how the decennial census asks questions about race and ethnicity have raised concerns among some groups that any changes could reduce their population count and thus weaken their electoral clout.

The Census Bureau is considering numerous changes to the 2020 survey in an effort to improve the responses of minorities and more accurately classify Latino, Asian, Middle Eastern and multiracial populations.

Potential options include eliminating the “Hispanic origin” question and combining it with the race question, new queries for people of Middle Eastern or North African heritage, and spaces for Asians to list their country of descent. One likely outcome could be an end to the use of “Negro.”

The stakes surrounding population counts are high. Race data collected in the census are used for many purposes, including enforcement of civil rights laws and monitoring of racial disparities in education, health and other areas.

In addition, the information is used to redraw state legislative and local school districts, and in the reapportioning of congressional seats. The strong Latino growth found in the 2010 census guaranteed additional seats in Congress for eight states.

Latino leaders say changing the Hispanic origin question could create confusion and lead some Latinos not to mark their ethnicity, shrinking the overall Hispanic numbers.

The wording in the 2010 census question, which asked people if they are of Latino origin and then provided a space to fill in their race, yielded a strong response and a record count of 50 million Latinos. Their growth moved them ahead of African-Americans as the nation’s largest minority group.

“We’re the only group in the country that has our own question? Why give it up?” says Angelo Falcon, director of the National Institute for Latino Policy. “A lot of Latino researchers like the question the way it is now because it shows those differences. The way the Census Bureau is thinking about combining the questions, it might take away that information in terms of how we fit within the American racial hierarchy.”

Falcon co-chairs a group of about 30 Latino civil rights and advocacy groups that recently met with the Census Bureau about the potential changes.
For many years, the accuracy of census data on some minorities has been questioned because many respondents don’t report being a member of one of the five official government racial categories: white, black or African-American, Asian, American Indian/Alaska Native and Pacific Islander.

When respondents don’t choose a race, the Census Bureau assigns them one, based on the racial makeup of their neighborhood, among other factors. The method leads to a less accurate count.

Broadly, the nation’s demographic shifts underscore the fact that many people, particularly Latinos and immigrants, don’t identify with the American concept of race.

The government categorizes Hispanic as an ethnicity, while many Hispanics think of it as a race. The confusion played out in the 2010 count, as nearly 22 million people — 97 percent of whom were Hispanic — identified as “some other race.” It ranked as the third-largest racial category.

In addition, Asians and Hispanics had the highest rates of interracial marriage in 2010. And 9 million people identified as multiracial, compared with nearly 6 million in 2000.

Even the terms “Latino” and “Hispanic” are met by many with ambivalence, according to a 2011 national survey by the Pew Hispanic Research Center. Only about 24 percent of adults use either term to most often describe themselves. Slightly more than half of the respondents preferred to identify themselves by their family’s country of origin. And 21 percent said they most often identify as American.
Middle Eastern and North African origin is an ancestry, which is no longer captured in the census form. The government racially defines the ancestry as white. Advocates say the methodology has led to severe undercounts of people of Arab descent.

“We don’t necessarily identify as white because we have a lot of cultural and socioeconomic idiosyncrasies that are different,” says Samer Araabi of the Arab American Institute, which supports the Census Bureau’s efforts. “We think it’s a great step forward not only for the Arab-American community, but for all other communities that are currently being lost in the census form.”

The Census Bureau’s research for the 2020 form is based on findings from an experimental questionnaire sent to nearly 500,000 households during the 2010 census. The forms worded the race and ethnicity questions differently than the official form, including combining them as a single question. Census officials say the combined question led to improved response rates and accuracy.

Karen Humes, assistant division chief for Special Population Statistics of the Census Bureau, says the agency’s research is “expanding our understanding of how people identify their race and Hispanic origin. It can change over time.” Humes says it’s “very premature” to anticipate exactly how the 2020 census form might change.

Any recommended changes to the form must be approved by the Office of Management and Budget and by Congress. 
Source: NPR

NCES Teacher Demographic Data: Who’s Teaching Our Kids?

According to a recent report released by the National Center for Education Statistics, entitled  Beginning K–12 Teacher Characteristics and Preparation by School Type, 2009, the racial and ethnic breakdown of teachers employed in U.S. secondary school was as follows:

77% are white
9.1% are Hispanic
7.6% are black
4% self-identify as two or more races
3.4% are Asian

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education

Multiracial Numbers from the Census Bureau

 Below are the results of the American Community Survey (ACS) for multiracial (two or more races), released today by the Census Bureau for the year 2011. Think of it as the one year census obtained by sampling. It asks questions that used to be on the Census long form, but is more of a profile than a true count. 
 
TOTAL NUMBER OF RACES REPORTED    
Total population 8,721,818
One race (X)
Two races 91.6%
Three races 7.8%
Four or more races 0.6%
   
SEX AND AGE  
Total population 8,721,818
Male 49.9%
Female 50.1%
   
Under 5 years 15.6%
5 to 17 years 31.6%
18 to 24 years 12.3%
25 to 34 years 12.3%
35to 44 years 9.5%
45 to 54 years 8.3%
55 to 64 years 5.8%
65 to 74 years 2.8%
75 years and over 1.8%
   
Median age (years) 19.3
   
18 years and over 52.9%
21 years and over 46.9%
62 years and over 6.1%
65 years and over 4.6%
   
Under 18 years 4,110,923
Male 50.9%
Female 49.1%
   
18 years and over 4,610,895
Male 49.0%
Female 51.0%
   
18 to 34 years 2,143,959
Male 50.5%
Female 49.5%
   
35 to 64 years 2,064,394
Male 48.4%
Female 51.6%
   
65 years and over 402,542
Male 43.6%
Female 56.4%
     
RELATIONSHIP    
Population in households 8,473,511
Householder or spouse 32.1%
Child 52.6%
Other relatives 9.9%
Nonrelatives 5.4%
Unmarried partner 1.8%
   
HOUSEHOLDS BY TYPE  
Households 1,964,891
Family households 65.2%
With own children under 18 years 36.1%
Married-couple family 40.9%
With own children under 18 years 21.2%
Female householder, no husband present, family 18.1%
With own children under 18 years 11.7%
Nonfamily households 34.8%
Male householder 16.9%
Living alone 12.4%
Not living alone 4.5%
Female householder 18.0%
Living alone 14.3%
Not living alone 3.7%
     
Average household size 2.87
average family size 3.54
   
MARITAL STATUS  
Population 15 years and over 5,166,156
Now married, except separated 35.0%
Widowed 3.3%
Divorced 10.4%
Separated 2.6%
Never married 48.7%
   
Male 15 years and over 2,540,580
Now married, except separated 35.3%
Widowed 1.4%
Divorced 8.9%
Separated 2.1%
Never married 52.3%
   
Female 15 years and over 2,625,576
Now married, except separated 34.6%
Widowed 5.2%
Divorced 11.9%
Separated 3.1%
Never married 45.2%
     
SCHOOL ENROLLMENT    
Population 3 years and over enrolled in school 3,841,463
Nursery school, preschool 8.6%
Kindergarten 6.6%
Elementary school (grades 1-8) 44.7%
High school (grades 9-12) 19.5%
College or graduate school 20.6%
   
Male 3 years and over enrolled in school 1,907,602
Percent enrolled in kindergarten to grade 12 72.6%
Percent enrolled in college or graduate school 18.4%
Female 3 years and over enrolled in school 1,933,861
Percent enrolled in kindergarten to grade 12 69.1%
Percent enrolled in college or graduate school 22.6%
     
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT    
Population 25 years and over 3,541,922
Less than high school diploma 15.4%
High school graduate (includes equivalency) 24.3%
Some college or associate’s degree 34.2%
Bachelor’s degree 16.7%
Graduate or professional degree 9.5%
   
High school graduate or higher 84.6%
Male, high school graduate or higher 83.7%
Female, high school graduate or higher 85.5%
Bachelor’s degree or higher 26.2%
Male, bachelor’s degree or higher 24.9%
Female, bachelor’s degree or higher 27.4%
   
FERTILITY  
Women 15 to 50 years 1,994,125
Women 15 to 50 years who had a birth in the past 12 months 112,631
Unmarried women 15 to 50 years who had a birth in the past 12 months 50,272
As a percent of all women with a birth in the past 12 months 44.6%
   
RESPONSIBILITY FOR GRANDCHILDREN UNDER 18 YEARS    
Population 30 years and over 2,965,880
Living with grandchild(ren) 4.7%
Responsible for grandchild(ren) 40.0%
   
VETERAN STATUS  
Civilian population 18 years and over 4,571,685
Civilian veteran 7.2%
   
DISABILITY STATUS  
Total civilian noninstitutionalized population 8,575,563
With a disability 10.9%
   
Civilian noninstitutionalized population under 18 years 4,103,123
With a disability 4.9%
   
Civilian noninstitutionalized population 18 to 64 years 4,080,238
With a disability 13.5%
   
Civilian noninstitutionalized population 65 years and older 392,202
With a disability 45.3%
   
RESIDENCE 1 YEAR AGO    
Population 1 year and over 8,451,855
Same house 79.6%
Different house in the U.S. 19.5%
Same county 12.5%
Different county 7.0%
Same state 3.9%
Different state 3.1%
Abroad 0.8%
   
PLACE OF BIRTH, CITIZENSHIP STATUS AND YEAR OF ENTRY  
Native 7,731,773
Male 49.9%
Female 50.1%
     
Foreign born 990,045
Male 50.1%
Female 49.9%
   
Foreign born; naturalized U.S. citizen 486,162
Male 47.8%
Female 52.2%
   
Foreign born; not a U.S. citizen 503,883
Male 52.4%
Female 47.6%
   
Population born outside the United States 990,045
Entered 2000 or later 36.1%
Entered 1990 to 1999 25.1%
Entered before 1990 38.8%
   
WORLD REGION OF BIRTH OF FOREIGN BORN  
Foreign-born population excluding population born at sea 990,045
Europe 3.8%
Asia 37.9%
Africa 3.0%
Oceania 1.9%
Latin America 51.9%
Northern America 1.3%
   
LANGUAGE SPOKEN AT HOME AND ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH    
Population 5 years and over 7,363,159
English only 77.3%
Language other than English 22.7%
Speak English less than “very well” 8.2%
   
EMPLOYMENT STATUS  
Population 16 years and over 4,973,223
In labor force 64.8%
Civilian labor force 64.0%
Employed 54.3%
Unemployed 9.7%
Percent of civilian labor force 15.2%
Armed Forces 0.8%
Not in labor force 35.2%
   
Females 16 years and over 2,533,138
In labor force 61.7%
Civilian labor force 61.4%
Employed 52.5%
Unemployed 9.0%
Percent of civilian labor force 14.6%
   
COMMUTING TO WORK  
Workers 16 years and over 2,666,307
Car, truck, or van – drove alone 69.7%
Car, truck, or van – carpooled 12.6%
Public transportation (excluding taxicab) 7.1%
Walked 4.0%
Other means 2.3%
Worked at home 4.2%
Mean travel time to work (minutes) 25.9
   
OCCUPATION  
Civilian employed population 16 years and over 2,702,154
Management, business, science, and arts occupations 32.1%
Service occupations 22.6%
Sales and office occupations 26.1%
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations 8.0%
Production, transportation, and material moving occupations 11.2%
     
Male civilian employed population 16 years and over 1,373,491
Management, business, science, and arts occupations 28.6%
Service occupations 20.2%
Sales and office occupations 19.2%
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations 14.8%
Production, transportation, and material moving occupations 17.2%
   
Female civilian employed population 16 years and over 1,328,663
Management, business, science, and arts occupations 35.7%
Service occupations 25.1%
Sales and office occupations 33.2%
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations 0.9%
Production, transportation, and material moving occupations 5.1%
   
INDUSTRY  
Civilian employed population 16 years and over 2,702,154
Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, and mining 1.2%
Construction 5.0%
Manufacturing 8.0%
Wholesale trade 2.3%
Retail trade 13.6%
Transportation and warehousing, and utilities 4.6%
Information 2.5%
Finance and insurance, and real estate and rental and leasing 5.6%
Professional, scientific, and management, and administrative and waste management services 10.7%
Educational services, and health care and social assistance 22.4%
Arts, entertainment, and recreation, and accommodation and food services 13.5%
Other services (except public administration) 5.0%
Public administration 5.6%
   
CLASS OF WORKER  
Civilian employed population 16 years and over 2,702,154
Private wage and salary workers 78.8%
Government workers 15.4%
Self-employed workers in own not incorporated business 5.6%
Unpaid family workers 0.1%
   
INCOME IN THE PAST 12 MONTHS (IN 2011 INFLATION-ADJUSTED DOLLARS)  
Households 1,964,891
Median household income (dollars) 44,115
   
With earnings 82.0%
Mean earnings (dollars) 63,655
With Social Security income 21.2%
Mean Social Security income (dollars) 14,200
With Supplemental Security Income 7.9%
Mean Supplemental Security Income (dollars) 8,909
With cash public assistance income 5.2%
Mean cash public assistance income (dollars) 3,619
With retirement income 12.1%
Mean retirement income (dollars) 20,132
With Food Stamp/SNAP benefits 20.5%
   
Families 1,280,196
Median family income (dollars) 51,603
Married-couple family 62.7%
Median income (dollars) 68,859
Male householder, no spouse present, family 9.5%
Median income (dollars) 38,438
Female householder, no husband present, family 27.8%
Median income (dollars) 25,996
   
Individuals 8,721,818
Per capita income (dollars) 14,669
   
With earnings for full-time, year-round workers:  
Male 941,210
Female 759,319
Mean earnings (dollars) for full-time, year-round workers:  
Male 55,614
Female 44,031
Median earnings (dollars) full-time, year-round workers:  
Male 41,608
Female 35,623
   
HEALTH INSURANCE COVERAGE    
Civilian noninstitutionalized population 8,575,563
With private health insurance 58.7%
With public coverage 33.3%
No health insurance coverage 14.4%
   
POVERTY RATES FOR FAMILIES AND PEOPLE FOR WHOM POVERTY STATUS IS DETERMINED  
All families 17.9%
With related children under 18 years 24.2%
With related children under 5 years only 24.3%
Married-couple family 9.0%
With related children under 18 years 11.9%
With related children under 5 years only 8.3%
Female householder, no husband present, family 37.4%
With related children under 18 years 44.7%
With related children under 5 years only 52.4%
   
All people 21.4%
Under 18 years 24.2%
Related children under 18 years 23.9%
Related children under 5 years 27.2%
Related children 5 to 17 years 22.3%
18 years and over 18.8%
18 to 64 years 19.3%
65 years and over 14.4%
People in families 19.3%
Unrelated individuals 15 years and over 35.4%
   
HOUSING TENURE  
Occupied housing units 1,964,891
Owner-occupied housing units 50.1%
Renter-occupied housing units 49.9%
   
Average household size of owner-occupied unit 3.09
Average household size of renter-occupied unit 2.65
   
UNITS IN STRUCTURE  
Occupied housing units 1,964,891
1-unit, detached or attached 58.9%
2 to 4 units 11.1%
5 or more units 24.6%
Mobile home, boat, RV, van, etc. 5.4%
   
YEAR STRUCTURE BUILT  
Occupied housing units 1,964,891
Built 2000 or later 15.7%
Built 1990 to 1999 12.3%
Built 1980 to 1989 13.9%
Built 1960 to 1979 27.6%
Built 1940 to 1959 16.5%
Built 1939 or earlier 14.1%
   
VEHICLES AVAILABLE  
Occupied housing units 1,964,891
None 13.1%
1 or more 86.9%
     
HOUSE HEATING FUEL    
Occupied housing units 1,964,891
Gas 51.4%
Electricity 38.1%
All other fuels 7.2%
No fuel used 3.3%
   
SELECTED CHARACTERISTICS  
Occupied housing units 1,964,891
No telephone service available 3.5%
1.01 or more occupants per room 5.4%
     
SELECTED MONTHLY OWNER COSTS AS A PERCENTAGE OF HOUSEHOLD INCOME IN THE PAST 12 MONTHS    
Housing units with a mortgage (excluding units where SMOC cannot be computed) 728,399
Less than 30 percent 55.5%
30 percent or more 44.5%
   
OWNER CHARACTERISTICS  
Owner-occupied housing units 985,233
Median value (dollars) 177,400
Median selected monthly owner costs with a mortgage (dollars) 1,567
Median selected monthly owner costs without a mortgage (dollars) 422
     
GROSS RENT AS A PERCENTAGE OF HOUSEHOLD INCOME IN THE PAST 12 MONTHS    
Occupied units paying rent (excluding units where GRAPI cannot be computed) 914,472
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2011 American Community Survey